(a) RBC are formed in the liver and spleen when the organism is a foetus. After birth these are formed in the red bone marrow. At the time of formation of RBC’s they have nucleus but later on they loose nucleus. Those enucleated cells perform all the functions of a cell so these are called cells.
RBC’s are surrounded by semipermeable plasma membrane. It contains homogenous cytoplasm and it is without the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes and centrioles. RBC’s get advantage due to this condition. Corpuscles have more space to hold haemoglobin. It can as well give more oxygen by the haemoglobin to the tissue cells. So the enucleated condition is more useful to the tissue cells. The necessity of work has made them without nucleus and perform all the functions of the cells so they are called cells.
(b) Before transfusion of blood, it is most essential to determine the blood group of the donor and the recipient. The blood group of the donor and the recipient must match with each other, otherwise the RBC’s will stick to each other and thus the life of a recipient may be in danger as the blood groups are different. The sticking is due to the antigens (proteins) found in the blood of the donor and the antibodies found in the blood of the recipient.
(c) The blood from the stomach and the intestine goes to liver before going to the heart. Liver monitors the substances before passing into the body. Excess of glucose is retained by the liver in the form of glycogen and the excess amino acids are broken down by the liver. Harmful chemicals are detoxified and bacteria are destroyed and excess minerals, water and vitamins are stored in the liver.