Pastoral community in different parts of the world was affected in a variety of ways by changes in the modern world.
(i) New laws and new borders affected the patterns of their movement. With increasing restrictions on their mobility, pastoralists found it difficult to move in search of pastures.
(ii) As pasture lands disappeared, grazing became a problem and pastures deteriorated through continuous overgrazing.
(iii) Times of drought became times of crises, when cattle died in large numbers.