Romanticism criticised glorification of reason and science and focussed instead on emotions,intuitions and mystical feelings. The poets and romantic artists tried to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of nationalism.
Some Romantics, like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder, tried through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularise the true spirit of the nation. The Polish artist,Karol Kurpinski encouraged National Struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the ‘polonaise’ and ‘mazurka’ into national symbols. Language also played an important role in developing nationalist feelings. The Grimm Brothers promoted German language to oppose French domination through their collection of folk tales. The Polish used language as a weapon against Russian domination.