(i) Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order. Monarchs were beginning to realise that the cycles of revolution and repression could only be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.
(ii) Hence, in the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815.
(iii) Thus, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominations and in Russia.
(iv) The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.