(i) After 1815, many liberal nationalists went underground for the fear of repression like Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionary who founded two underground societies; first Young Italy in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne. Following the footsteps of Mazzini, many secret societies were Set-up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(ii) Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The Romantics used folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularize the true spirit of the nation. For example, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music in Poland. He turned folk dances; like polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
(iii) Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. For example: It was mainly used as a weapon of national resistance when Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Poland.