The role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian revolutionary:
(i) He founded two secret societies—Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
(ii) Members of these societies were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and German states.
(iii) Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.
(iv) Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the conservatives.