(i) The Balkan was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Harzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
(ii) The inhabitants of these regions were known as Slavs.
(iii) A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
(iv) As the different slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
(v) The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others