(i) In olden times the best way to present an idea was through symbolic personifications. This was the most common and appealing way to invite people’s attention.
(ii) From 1789 females appeared in paintings as symbol of liberty and revolution.
(iii) During the French Revolution, many symbolic personifications of ‘Liberty’ and ‘Reason’ appeared. Marianne was the female figure invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the French nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic—the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
(iv) Statues of Marianne were erected in public places to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
(v) Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
(vi) Similarly, Germania became the symbol of the German nation. This work was done by the artist Philip Veit. He depicted Germania as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shone through the tricolour fabric of the national flag. Germania was wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
(vii) During the French Revolution, artists used the formal allegory to portray idea such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.