(i) Lack of internal democracy: The first challenge is lack of internal democracy within parties. Concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top.
(ii) Dynastic succession: Favour people close to them or even their family members. In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family.
(iii) Money and muscle power: The third challenge is about growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections.
(iv) Meaningful choice: The fourth challenge is that very often parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters.