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Under what circumstances Vietnam was divided into the north and south Vietnam ?

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(i) In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam. To fight against the Japanese, Viet Minh was formed.
(ii) Viet Minh recaptured Hanoi in 1945. The Democratic Republic of Viet Minh was formed, and Ho Chi Minh became the chairman.
(iii)The new ‘Republic’ faced a number of challenges. To restore its hold over Indo­China, the French troops entered Vietnam, and started fighting the Viet Minh.
(iv) The French tried to regain control by using the Emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Viet Minh were forced to retreat to the hills.
(v) The war had taken a new turn because it became a part of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union.
(vi) Soviet Union and China gave support to Ho Chi Minh, whereas France got the support of Britain and the United States.
(vii) In 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded about 16,000 French troops and inflicted upon them a crushing defeat at the fortress of Dien Bien Phu.
(viii) It forced the French government to initiate negotiations with the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
(ix) In July 1954, an international conference was held at Geneva.
(x) The Geneva Agreement of 21st July, 1954 decided to divide Vietnam temporarily into the North Vietnam and the South Vietnam.
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The circumstances that led the division of Vietnam into two- north and South Vietnam were:
1.In The New Republic of Vietnam, there was a constant war between French and the Vietminh.
2.This fight continued for eight years and after eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
3.On 7 May 1954, the Vietminh annihilated and captured more than 16,000 soldiers of the French Expeditionary Corps.
4.The French were defeated and a peace negotiation started in Geneva wherein the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country.
5.North Vietnam and South Vietnam were split.

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