(i) In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam. To fight against the Japanese, Viet Minh was formed.
(ii) Viet Minh recaptured Hanoi in 1945. The Democratic Republic of Viet Minh was formed, and Ho Chi Minh became the chairman.
(iii)The new ‘Republic’ faced a number of challenges. To restore its hold over IndoChina, the French troops entered Vietnam, and started fighting the Viet Minh.
(iv) The French tried to regain control by using the Emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Viet Minh were forced to retreat to the hills.
(v) The war had taken a new turn because it became a part of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union.
(vi) Soviet Union and China gave support to Ho Chi Minh, whereas France got the support of Britain and the United States.
(vii) In 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded about 16,000 French troops and inflicted upon them a crushing defeat at the fortress of Dien Bien Phu.
(viii) It forced the French government to initiate negotiations with the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
(ix) In July 1954, an international conference was held at Geneva.
(x) The Geneva Agreement of 21st July, 1954 decided to divide Vietnam temporarily into the North Vietnam and the South Vietnam.